Glossary

Get to know basic web design terms.

CSS:
Cascading Style Sheets, commonly referred to as CSS, is a style sheet language that describes the presentation of web pages. Whereas HTML is what forms the structure of a web page, CSS is what we use to style the HTML with colors, backgrounds, font sizes, layout, and more. As you'll soon learn, CSS is one of the core technologies for designing and building websites.

HTML:
HyperText Markup Language, commonly referred to as HTML, is the standard markup language used to create web pages. Along with CSS, and JavaScript, HTML is a cornerstone technology used to create web pages. Web browsers can read HTML files and render them into visible or audible web pages. HTML describes the structure of a website semantically and, before the advent of Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), included cues for the presentation or appearance of the document (web page), making it a markup language, rather than a programming language.

HTML elements form the building blocks of HTML pages. HTML allows images and other objects to be embedded and it can be used to create interactive forms. It provides a means to create structured documents by denoting structural semantics for text such as headings, paragraphs, lists, links, quotes and other items. HTML elements are delineated by tags, written using angle brackets. Tags introduce content into the page directly. Others surround and provide information about document text and may include other tags as sub-elements. Browsers do not display the HTML tags, but use them to interpret the content of the page.

HTML can embed scripts written in languages such as JavaScript, which affect the behavior of HTML web pages. HTML markup can also refer the browser to Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) to define the look and layout of text and other material.

JavaScript:
JavaScript is a high-level, dynamic, untyped, and interpreted programming language. It has been standardized in the ECMAScript language specification. Alongside HTML and CSS, it is one of the three essential technologies of World Wide Web content production; the majority of websites employ it and it is supported by all modern Web browsers without plug-ins.

JavaScript is prototype-based with first-class functions, making it a multi-paradigm language, supporting object-oriented, imperative, and functional programming styles. It has an API for working with text, arrays, dates and regular expressions, but does not include any I/O, such as networking, storage, or graphics facilities, relying for these upon the host environment in which it is embedded.

Despite some naming, syntactic, and standard library similarities, JavaScript and Java are otherwise unrelated and have very different semantics. The syntax of JavaScript is actually derived from C, while the semantics and design are influenced by the Self and Scheme programming languages.

JavaScript is also used in environments that are not Web-based, such as PDF documents, site-specific browsers, and desktop widgets. Newer and faster JavaScript virtual machines (VMs) and platforms built upon them have also increased the popularity of JavaScript for server-side Web applications. On the client side, JavaScript has been traditionally implemented as an interpreted language, but more recent browsers perform just-in-time compilation. It is also used in game development, the creation of desktop and mobile applications, and server-side network programming with runtime environments.

FLASH:
Adobe Flash (formerly called Macromedia Flash and Shockwave Flash) is a multimedia and software platform used for creating vector graphics, animation, browser games, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications and mobile games. Flash displays text, vector and raster graphics to provide animations, video games and applications. It allows streaming of audio and video, and can capture mouse, keyboard, microphone and camera input.

Flash graphics and animation are designed using a variety of Flash editing software, such as Adobe Flash Builder, Adobe Animate, FlashDevelop, or any text editor when used with the Apache Flex SDK. Content may be viewed by end-users using Flash Player (for web browsers), AIR (for desktop or mobile apps) or third-party players such as Scaleform GFx (for video games). Adobe Flash Player enables end-users to view Flash content using web browsers, and is supported on Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. Adobe Flash Lite enabled viewing Flash content on older smartphones, but has been discontinued and superseded by Adobe AIR.

The ActionScript programming language allows creation of interactive animations, video games, web applications, desktop applications and mobile applications. Flash software can be developed using an IDE such as Adobe Animate, Adobe Flash Builder, FlashDevelop and Powerflasher FDT. Adobe AIR enables full-featured desktop and mobile applications to be developed with Flash, and published for Microsoft Windows, Mac OS X, Google Android, and iOS.

Flash is frequently used to display streaming video, advertisement and interactive multimedia content on web pages and Flash-enabled software. However, after the 2000s, the usage of Flash on Web sites has declined; as of 2015, Flash is primarily used to build video games for mobile devices with Adobe AIR.
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